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Gingivitis treatment

Periodontal disease is a bacterial inflammation with local as well as systemic manifestation. It affects the gums, the bone, and the other tissues that surround and support teeth.
It is very frequent (over 50% of the population suffer from it) and it constitutes the main cause of tooth loss in adults.
Its mildest form is gingivitis, which, if left untreated, can lead to the most severe form, periodontitis.
It has now been proved that chronic periodontal disease can potentially affect the general health of the body.

Α. What is gingivitis

Gingivitis is the superficial inflammation that is usually expressed by reddish, swollen gums that bleed while brushing. Often, it is also accompanied by halitosis. If not diagnosed and treated early, it can quite often evolve into periodontitis.

Causes
The main causes of periodontal disease are the combination of bacteria  that exist normally in the mouth with the accumulation of food debris, which form dental plaque. The absence of thorough daily oral hygiene can result in the multiplication of these bacterial, their conversion into pathogens and the gradual appearance of increasingly intense inflammation.

Predisposing factors
The appearance of this disease, and its severity, can be affected by factors such as:

  • Heredity
  • Smoking
  • Hormonal disorders, pregnancy
  • Systemic diseases, such as diabetes mellitus
  • Psychological factors, such as stress
  • Diseases related to immune deficiency
  • Various drugs (antihypertensive, antiepileptic, etc.)

Treatment
Treatment includes the removal of the inflammation and tartar via "deep cleaning" in 3 sessions, and the training of the patient in proper oral hygiene.
These days, treatment is often completed using  laser technology that can contribute to the reduction of the bacterial population.

Importance of prevention
The appearance and evolution of the periodontal disease can be prevented with the appropriate application of regular oral hygiene (correct brushing, dental flossing, interdental brushes, mouthwash) and regular visits to the dentist.
One must bear in mind that, sometimes, periodontal disease can exist with no apparent symptoms, and for this reason it is essential to visit the dentist at least once or twice per year.